Karl Fischer titration is an accurate, rapid and efficient method for determining the water content in samples.
When the sample is titrated in the presence of SO , I , and an organic base, moisture from the sample extracted in the solvent, 2 2
can be quantitatively estimated. Dry methanol is used as a solvent in Karl Fischer titration.
• The indicator-electrode is a two-pin platinum electrode across which a constant current is generated by a polarizing current
source. For starting, very low volume of methanol as a solvent is needed in the specially designed vessel.
• Background signal correction is done through an offset mode.
• Calculated doses of Karl Fischer reagent are added to the solution in a hermetically sealed vessel as per stop criteria selected
and the end-point volume is evaluated automatically. The instrument continuously monitors moisture leak in the vessel and
neutralizes it automatically.
• The built-in reagent standardization procedure by water (H O) or Sodium Tartrate (C H Na O 2H 0) for titre factor/concentration 2 4 4 2 6 2
(F) is incorporated.
• The liquid handling path comprises teflon tubing, teflon-lined valve, and a gastight syringe with teflon plunger. It creates a
chemically inert system for this highly sensitive analysis.
• The magnetic, adjustable-speed stirrer is a part of the system in which the sample is stirred vigorously to extract the moisture
• The result, including the leak rate, is printed in a tabulated form and is also displayed on back lighted liquid crystal display (LCD)
Karl Fischer titration is a dead stop titration process which monitors the mV drift to be lower than the stop band, and the end of
the titration is detected when the leak rate is close to or less than stop band. The leak rate is displayed and also printed. There are
two main modes of operation:
(a) In minimum dose mode where the end dose is same as the minimum dose, the titration will be stopped when the mV does
not rise above the stop band in specified delay time.
(b) In drift mode, the titration will be stopped if the calculated drift value is less than or equal to entered drift value in μl/min.